Trailokya

Three worlds of Hindu cosmology
Sculpture of Vamana, an avatar of Vishnu, who is associated with the legend of taking three strides upon the three worlds

Trailokya (Sanskrit: त्रैलोक्य; Kannada: ತ್ರೈಲೋಕ್ಯ; Pali: tiloka, Tibetan: khams gsum; Chinese: 三界) literally means "three worlds"[1][2][3][4][5] It can also refer to "three spheres,"[3] "three planes of existence,"[6] "three realms"[6] and "three regions."[4]

Conceptions of three worlds (tri-loka) appear in Hinduism and Jainism, as well as early Buddhist texts.

The Triloka Purusha, the figure who embodies the three worlds.

Hindu cosmology

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The concept of three worlds has a number of different interpretations in Hindu cosmology.

  • Traditionally, the three worlds refer to either the earth (Bhuloka), heaven (Svarga), and hell (Naraka),[7] or the earth (Bhuloka), heaven (Svarga), and the netherworld (Patala)[8]
  • The Brahmanda Purana conceives them to be Bhūta (past), Bhavya (future), and Bhavat (present)[9]
  • In Vaishnavism, the three worlds are often described to be bhūr, bhuvaḥ, and svaḥ (the gross region, the subtle region, and the celestial region)[10]
  • In the Nilanamatapurana, Vamana covers his second step on the three worlds of Maharloka, Janaloka, and Tapoloka, all of which are regarded to be a part of the seven heavens[11]

Buddhist cosmology

In Buddhism, the three worlds refer to the following destinations for karmic rebirth:

  • Kāmaloka the world of desire, typified by base desires, populated by hell beings, preta (hungry ghosts), animals, humans and lower demi-gods.
  • Rūpaloka is the world of form, predominantly free of baser desires, populated by dhyāna-dwelling gods, possible rebirth destination for those well practiced in dhyāna.
  • Arūpaloka is the world of formlessness, a noncorporeal realm populated with four heavens, possible rebirth destination for practitioners of the four formlessness stages.[3]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Monier-Williams (1899), p. 460, col. 1, entry for "[Tri-]loka" (retrieved at http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MWScan/MWScanpdf/mw0460-trimala.pdf) and p. 462, col. 2, entry for "Trailoya" (retrieved at http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MWScan/MWScanpdf/mw0462-tripu.pdf).
  2. ^ Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-25), p. 301, entry for "Ti-" (retrieved at http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?p.1:129.pali). Here, tiloka is compared with tebhūmaka ("three planes").
  3. ^ a b c Fischer-Schreiber et al. (1991), p. 230, entry for "Triloka." Here, synonyms for triloka include trailokya and traidhātuka.
  4. ^ a b Blavatsky (1892), pp. 336-7, entry for "Trailokya" (retrieved at http://www.phx-ult-lodge.org/ATUVWXYZ.htm#t).
  5. ^ Purucker (1999), entry for "Trailokya" (retrieved at http://www.theosociety.org/pasadena/etgloss/tho-tre.htm).
  6. ^ a b Berzin (2008) renders khams-gsum (Wylie; Tibetan) and tridhatu (Sanskrit) as "three planes of existence" and states that it is "[s]ometimes called 'the three realms.'" Tridhatu is a synonym of triloka where dhatu may be rendered as "dimension" or "realm" and loka as "world" or even "planet."
  7. ^ www.wisdomlib.org (2017-11-18). "Trailokya: 19 definitions". www.wisdomlib.org. Retrieved 2022-08-18.
  8. ^ Maruvada, Surya N. (2020-03-02). Who is Who in Hindu Mythology - VOL 2: A Comprehensive Collection of Stories from the Pur??as. Notion Press. ISBN 978-1-64805-686-4.
  9. ^ www.wisdomlib.org (2019-06-20). "Vaivasvata Manvantara: the Mārīca creation [Chapter 38]". www.wisdomlib.org. Retrieved 2022-08-18.
  10. ^ www.wisdomlib.org (2008-09-27). "Triloka, Tri-loka: 12 definitions". www.wisdomlib.org. Retrieved 2022-08-18.
  11. ^ www.wisdomlib.org (2019-01-28). "Story of Vāmana". www.wisdomlib.org. Retrieved 2022-08-18.

Sources

  • Berzin, Alexander (March 6, 2008). Berzin Archives Glossary. Retrieved Sunday July 13, 2008 from "Berzin Archives" at http://www.berzinarchives.com/web/en/about/glossary/glossary_tibetan.html.
  • Blavatsky, H.P. (1892). Theosophical Glossary. London: Theosophical Publishing Society. Retrieved 2008-07-14 from "The Theosophical Glossary (United Lodge of Theosophists, Phoenix, Arizona)" at http://theosophicalglossary.net/.
  • Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, Franz-Karl Ehrhard, Michael S. Diener and Michael H. Kohn (trans.) (1991). The Shambhala Dictionary of Buddhism and Zen. Boston: Shambhala Publications. ISBN 0-87773-520-4.
  • Monier-Williams, Monier (1899, 1964). A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-864308-X. Retrieved 2008-07-13 from "Cologne University" at http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MWScan/index.php?sfx=pdf.
  • Purucker, G. de (ed.-in-chief) (1999). Encyclopedic Theosophical Glossary: A Resource on Theosophy. Theosophical University Press. Retrieved from "The Theosophical Society" at http://www.theosociety.org/pasadena/etgloss/etg-hp.htm.
  • Rhys Davids, T.W. & William Stede (eds.) (1921-5). The Pali Text Society’s Pali–English Dictionary. Chipstead: Pali Text Society. Retrieved 2008-07-13 from "U. Chicago" at http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/pali/.
  • W. E. Soothill & L. Hodous (1937-2000). A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-0319-1.

External links

  • Bullitt, John T. (2005). The Thirty-one Planes of Existence. Retrieved 2007-04-30 from "Access to Insight" at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/ptf/dhamma/sagga/loka.html.
  • 31 Planes of Existence by Bhante Acara Suvanno
  • 31 Planes of Existence - chart
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